Beer giants fail to change government's mind
Parent companies of Estonian breweries said after meeting with PM Jüri Ratas yesterday that because the government will not drop its plan of hiking excise duties ahead of schedule, breweries will just have to adjust and dial back investments in the long run.
15.03.2017, Lennart RuudaPM
Hiding alcohol to cost millions
Larger shops will have to move alcohol out of sight in the coming years. Retail chains say compliance with the regulation requires them to build opaque partitions that requires short-term investments stretching into millions.
02.02.2017, Lennart RuudaPM
Ossinovski drops gas stations alcohol ban
Even though Minister of Health Care and Labor Jevgeni Ossinovski said alcohol would disappear from gas stations as recently as late December, the ministry has now introduced draft legislation that does not include the ban and exempts small shops from moving alcohol out of sight. Changes will, however, ban alcohol advertisements on social media.
25.01.2017, Hanneli RudiPM
Prosecutor to appeal decision to drop 1 charge in Liviko case due to expiry
The prosecution is set to appeal the decision of the Tallinn circuit court to drop one charge in the cartel case related to the alcohol producer Liviko as expired.
23.01.2017, News.postimees.ee / BNSPM
Work continues on drunk driving bill
Minister of Justice Urmas Reinsalu (IRL) said in front of the Riigikogu yesterday that even though drivers caught drunk behind the wheel on multiple occasions can be sentenced to jail today, courts tend to favor conditional sentences, which is why a change of criminal policy is needed.
12.01.2017, Tiina KaukverePM
Circuit court also deems lawful restrictions against Tallinn Old Town bars
The Tallinn circuit court on Thursday upheld a decision made by the administrative court to not allow an appeal submitted by OU Valli, Lab OU, Acacia Trade OU, Taco Express OU, Nimeta Management OU, St. Patrick's OU and Kanteron BVI OU in connection with a decision of the Tallinn city government to impose economic activity restrictions on bars mainly situated on Suur-Karja Street in the Old Town, and changed the decision of the lower-tier court regarding M&A Pubid OU.
Gap between light and strong alcohol excise duty dries up
The difference between the excise duty on light and strong alcohol has remained unchanged for a long time; planned tax policy now aims to close the gap.
02.12.2016, Karel ReisenbukPM
Battalion chief resigns over drunk driving
The chief of the Estonian defense forces' Engineer Battalion, Lt. Col. Eero Tepp, has come under criminal investigation and had to resign after causing an accident while driving under the influence.
25.11.2016, Georgi BeltadzePM
Cameras to monitor alcohol tourists
The Tax and Customs Board (MTA) is looking to equip ten border crossing points with cameras capable of detecting license plates and pass an amendment that would allow it to carry out test purchases to uncover illegal resellers of alcohol bought in Latvia.
24.10.2016, Oliver KundPM
Punishment for post-accident alcohol consumption to be toughened
The Legal Affairs Committee of the Estonian parliament decided to form a work group to draft an amendment to toughen punishment for consuming alcohol after an accident.
Pilk peale! Go Away Bird ja Janno Reim avaldasid koostöös video uuele Johnny Cashist inspireeritud singlile
Ansambel Go Away Bird ja muusik Janno Reim said uue loo jaoks inspiratsiooni Johnny Cashilt.
Police solves some 500 incidents at Weekend
This weekend in Pärnu, police were busy. At the Weekend Festival Baltic, a total of 27 crimes were registered. 156 misdemeanour procedures were launched including 96 involving minors. Of the latter, 84 had to do with minors consuming alcohol, reported the police.
08.08.2016, Katriin TrallaPM
Fresh sales ban not quite working
In Estonia cider with its 1.2 percent content is considered a non-alcoholic beverage. For someone aged 12, half a litre has quite an effect.
22.07.2016, Hanneli RudiPM
Boy of 16 dead after tinkering with stranger's car
In Võru County late last Friday a man aged 55 hit a lad of 16 in the face, the latter having tinkered with the vehicle of his acquaintance. Afterwards, the boy died in hospital.
19.07.2016, Liis VelskerPM
Alcohol makers deny link to tipple shop in Latvia
Both Liviko and Saku Brewery deny the shop near Ikla border point is fruit from their lobbying, to force government too lower excise. Labour and health minister says he would never support that anyway.
15.07.2016, Gert SinilooPM
Estonians go to Latvia to bring booze for whole tribe
«Here for the first time, out of mere curiosity,» says Maie Krimm, here in Latvia all the way from Pärnu. The shopping cart pushed by joint effort with husband Jaan holds three cases of beer, several bottles of vodka and some other extra such stuff. The lady says that is not for them alone, for tonight. «We ain't no drunkards!» hollers Ms Krimm and tells us that part of the haul is for relatives.
15.07.2016, Gert SinilooPM
Editorial: young people must be kept far from alcohol
In the entire Western world, alcohol consumption is on the rise and doubtless this is the addictive substance most available to minors. And the current generations are earlier starters with the habit.
Buying a bottle? Show the passport
Test buys show identity documents are only asked of every second young buyer of alcohol. Still, outcome gladdens hearts of health activists by being better then before.
14.07.2016, Hanneli RudiPM
Adviser to Rõivas not backing down on excise rise
Contradicting the everyday experience of Estonians getting cheap alcohol from Valka, Latvia right across the border, adviser to Prime Minister on economy and finances Martin Lindpere cites statistics to prove the price levels of Estonia and Latvia do not differ much. Also, he assures us that Taavi Rõivas has entered no contract in the interests of Alko, the Finnish monopoly, to level vodka prices between the neighbouring nations.
20.06.2016, Andres ReimerPM
Prime minister raised excises by force
Entrepreneurs say rise of alcohol and fuel excise mainly harms retail in counties bordering with Latvia while transport related to exporters is hit all over the land.
20.06.2016, Andres ReimerPM
Beer river from Latvia rising to drown Estonia's packaging system
Beer bought in Latvia and guzzled in Estonia may deal death blow to Estonian packaging return system which has worked well for a decade.
10.06.2016, Hanneli RudiPM
Alcohol consumption per resident declined by 7 pct in Estonia in 2015
In Estonia 13.8 liters of absolute alcohol was consumed per adult resident in 2015, 7 percent less than in the year before, the annual overview of the Estonian Institute of Economic Research shows.
Nearly 70 percent of Estonian youth has tried alcohol at home
According to an overview of the alcohol prevention program Efekt nearly 70 percent of Estonian students who had consumed alcohol had done it at home when their parents gave them some to try.
Editorial: conflict v compromise
To a degree, stiffness and «my way» is turning into a stumbling stone for a key figure in current governing coalition, health and labour minister Jevgeni Ossinovski. After rising to lead Soc Dems in May 2015, he was expected to do a kind of restart and raise the party's popularity and profile by bringing it out of the shadows of partners.
Drunk driver hits bus shelter, seven reported injured
Seven people including a child were reported injured after a drunk driver crashed into a bus shelter shortly after noon on Monday in Tallinn.
The dark side of the tough guys
The much-noticed Soldiers of Odin Estonia Facebook group features a minimum of 182 people of criminal background with at least 374 crimes under their belt. The figure may be higher but these are what Postimees was able to confirm.
08.03.2016, Joosep VärkPM
Elderly stuck in wards with mentally ill and dangerous
Due to lapses in Estonian law, demented elderly and alcoholics find themselves sharing wards with aggressive and dangerous schizophrenics and the like.
01.03.2016, Martin LainePM
Kids do drugs at party, GHB talk unconfirmed
As established by police, drugs were used at birthday party of girl aged 16 in Raplamaa on Friday. Talk of «date rape» poured in glasses of girls was not confirmed.
18.02.2016, Liis VelskerPM
Editorial: children playing
Some two dozen minors got caught in a Rapla County birthday party by police, drunk. Turned out afterwards, drugs were involved. As one developed alcohol poisoning, they hauled her to the highway side so arrival of ambulance would not spoil the fun. The kids were taken to police station to be fetched by parents.
Estonian justice minister does not approve alcohol law amendments
Estonia's Justice Minister Urmas Reinsalu did not approve Health and Labor Minister Jevgeni Ossinovski's plans for restricting the advertising and sale of alcohol saying the bill of amendments did not sufficiently prove the need for and expediency of the planned measures.
Dmitrijev to possibly escape criminal penalty
Explains sworn lawyer Indrek Sirk: if Riigikogu's Centre Party faction member Dmitri Dmitrijev claims to have gotten drunk only after the traffic accident occurred, he may escape criminal penalty and be punished for mere misdemeanor.
27.01.2016, Liis VelskerPM
Criminal proceeding opened as MP's blood alcohol content exceeds 1.5 permille
A criminal procedure was opened after Dmitri Dmitrijev, the MP who crashed his car while intoxicated shortly after midnight on Thursday, was found to have a blood alcohol concentration higher than 1.5 permille.
Rest in Noise, Lemmy!
Motörhead's Lemmy's dead.
Initially i guessed this to be some Internet-hoax, a practical joke about this guy meant to be immortal. So it wasn't, and was for real. Real as Lemmy and the real ones do die. But Lemmy was also a myth and these stay around. One of the absolute rock’n’roll, of the attitude.
30.12.2015, Janar AlaPM
Valga buys booze from Valka
While Estonia debates toughening up its alcohol policy, Alko1000 - a chain owned by an Estonian - opened doors just across the border in Valka, Latvia. As early, as 8 am, the bottles are available at lot cheaper than in homeland.
30.11.2015, Taavi NiitteePM
Editorial: no taboo topics
The views expressed at Public Broadcasting (ERR) heads meeting that while discussing drug policy we should not give the floor to those favouring legalization of cannabis corresponds not to the balanced debate principle ERR should stand for. Understandably, the ERR leaders feel their responsibility. Understandably, the sense of responsibility contradicts ERR enhancing behaviour damaging to health. But this will not mean that a debate birthed in society may be limited to views of one side alone.
Producers boil over at alcohol policy «favouring Finland»
The government's ever toughening alcohol policy not limited to excise rises but curbing ads and rearranging shelves at stores seems random and based on outdated research and unrelated data, possibly undermining Estonian exports.
26.10.2015, Andres ReimerPM
Old Town bars to sue City of Tallinn over restrictions
Ten bars situated mainly in Suur-Karja Street in Tallinn's Old Town plan to sue the city government over economic activity restrictions which they claim violate their rights.
Estonian capital city imposing restrictions on 10 Old Town bars
Tallinn is to impose economic activity restrictions on 10 bars mainly situated in Suur-Karja Street in the Old Town, and the restrictions include a ban to sell alcohol from Monday to Friday from midnight to 5 a.m. and from Saturday to Sunday from 1 a.m. to 5 a.m.
Serial stabber adds victim while police uninformed
Back in 1997, Leonid Vinogradov (57) killed a victim with iron rod. Now, during five days he managed to stab two. had the police intervened after the first one, the second would have been spared.
21.10.2015, Nils NiitraPM
Editorial: drunkenness decisively demolished?
Long is the history of fighting alcohol. Even on pages of Postimees. Writes founder Johann Voldemar Jannsen, in Perno Postimees editorial over 150 years ago: «Estonians should have fewer drunkards among us. I know nothing that has thus damaged the nation, and harmed the well-being of their minds and pocket books as vodka. What a shame if Russians would beat us in their contempt for it!»
Booze to vanish from before buyer eye
In near future, purchasing alcohol will grow much more complex – stores will have to erect nontransparent walls around alcohol departments, gas stations must stop selling tipple altogether, and local government get powers to ban sales of intoxicating drinks in eateries at certain hours.
20.10.2015, Hanneli RudiPM
Doomsday dawning to gas station booze business
The state is about to clamp down on sale of alcohol and ban it in filling stations. The latter think drinking in the land will not decline by the decision.
08.10.2015, Hanneli RudiPM
Driver of vehicle in four-victim crash was severely drunk
The 23-year-old driver of the car in which four people were killed in an accident in Estonia's southern Tartu County on the evening of Aug. 4 was severely intoxicated, the investigation has established.
Govt plans long and winding road to vodka shop
Yesterday, social ministry presented alcohol market report ordered from Estonian Institute of Economic Research (EKI) in 2014 underlying dominating trends, attitudes and observations in the domain of drinking.
05.08.2015, Kerli KivistuPM
Destruction brings new birth to sensitive data
New grass mulch, paper plaster or concrete – such is recycled use for waste, the former content is better kept an eternal secret.
21.07.2015, Siiri LiivaPM
Editorial: the taxing decisions
The tax amendments package passed this Monday night was nothing nice. Pragmatically, it does secure the execution of policy agreed in government and the coalition can get its compromises enacted.
Estonian parlt passes tax law amendments
The Riigikogu on Monday passed amendments to the Social Tax Act, Income Tax Act and other laws according to which the excise duties on alcohol, tobacco and fuel will be raised faster than planned by the previous governments and the value added tax on accommodation services raised from 9 percent to 14 percent.
Restrictions on liquor sale in Tallinn to take effect July 1
The alcohol sale restrictions which ban alcohol sales in small stores and near schools will come into effect of July 1, spokespeople for the Tallinn city government said.
Finns buy third of Estonia's booze
Last year, 34 percent of alcohol sold in Estonia was purchased by Northern neighbours. The trend is downwards, though.
13.05.2015, Marge TubalkainPM
Editorial: Big Booze Blues
Thus wrote Postimees, in February 1916: the czarist state is setting certain sorts of restrictions on the production of vodka. «Among other things, no new vodka factories are allowed to be built.» In August, same year, we wrote about vodka-making being banned country-wide, as well as sales of the stuff in pubs and eateries, till end of war.
Survey: 80 pct of Estonians support banning alcohol ads
According to a survey commissioned by the Terve Eesti national health foundation 80 percent of Estonian residents support banning alcohol advertisements like it has been done with tobacco ads.
Grim Reaper kept busy by ignorance and negligence
As compared to rest of Europe, Estonia loses way too many lives due to injuries. Having studied the causes, Government Office strategy bureau adviser Maris Leimann says the state should deal with changing people’s attitudes – thus, many deaths would not be.
26.02.2015, Hanneli RudiPM
Quit drinking, keep smiling
Forget the world view. In election programmes, the parties stand united in intent to make life miserable for tipplers and find funds to fill holes in Estonian teeth. At current level of financing, the healthcare system is in dire straits a few years from now, but why mention that?
27.01.2015, Hanneli RudiPM
Sweden’s asylum seekers are hopping to Estonia for shopping
In Police and Border Guard Board internal mailing list, Northern prefect thereof Kristian Jaani painted an overview of last year highlighting the rising trend of people waiting for asylum in Sweden travelling to Estonia to buy cheap alcohol though not permitted to leave the kingdom.
22.01.2015, Tiina KaukverePM
Finns fetch less spirits from Estonia
Since last July stricter rules apply to Finns regarding alcohol bought to bring home from Estonia, as also reflected in second half-year sales.
15.01.2015, Kadri HansaluPM
Booze producers are blasting the government
Yesterday, strong alcohol beverages producer Liviko announced of having laid off 18 posts and a switch to part-time work citing ultra sharp excise rise by the state.
14.01.2015, Marge TubalkainPM
Editorial: booze populism
In Estonia, alcoholism is a serious problem. Takes no statistician or social scientist to prove that, any citizen may tell it all. Makes no difference if we are looking at alcohol related deaths, the traffic or just the street view. We are troubled by alcohol (over)users young and old. In all kinds of health and social costs, alcohol weighs heavy on us and causes grief as people close to us – family, neighbours, colleagues – gets drowned in its many sorrows. Also, alcohol plays a major role in crime and breaching of public order.
Estonian lawmakers vote to reinstitute ban on public drinking
The Estonian parliament on Wednesday passed with 69 votes the government-initiated bill of amendments to the Law Enforcement Act that restores the ban on public consumption of alcohol.
Court spares Estonian javelin world champion Varnik of jail
A court here on Tuesday spared former javelin world champion Andrus Varnik of jail for breach of probation but ordered the retired athlete to undergo treatment for alcoholism.
Crimes connected to alcohol up 13 pct on year
Last year the number of crimes connected to alcohol increased by 13 percent on year in Estonia and the number of cases concerning inducing minors to consume alcohol has also increased, it is written in the 2014 yearbook of the Estonian Institute of Economic Research.
Tallinn stops small shops spirits sales
Today, Tallinn city government council deliberates bill by council which, among other restrictions, prescribes that shops selling alcohol are to have area of 150 square metres or more.
05.11.2014, Uwe GnadenteichPM
Rector of Tallinn University of Technology to resign due to drunk driving
Rector of the Tallinn University of Technology Andres Keevallik is to resign due to a traffic accident he caused on Tuesday evening while intoxicated.
30.10.2014, News.postimees.ee / BNSPM
Savisaar to wage war on sales of spirits
Tallinn health coalition headed by Mayor of Tallinn Edgar Savisaar has tasked Tallinn city government headed by Edgar Savisaar with substantially restricting availability of alcohol in Tallinn.
23.10.2014, Uwe GnadenteichPM
As one, the people denounce drink-in-public act
A poll ordered by National Institute for Health Development (TAI) says Estonians stand united against public drinking: a remarkable 82 percent were not supportive of alcohol consumption okayed in public.
23.09.2014, Liis VelskerPM
Drinking freedom applied as duty
Justice minister Andres Anvelt is asking everybody to send their suggestions on how to tame those tippling in public space.
29.08.2014, Tuuli KochPM
Tallinn plans ban on public drinking
This week, Tallinn city government intends to approve a bill banning public drinking almost all over town. Boozing in public places of the city is clearly bothering the townsfolk, wrote the newspaper Pealinn (The Capital i.e. Tallinn).
26.08.2014, Meribel SinikaldaPM
Blanket booze biz ban from 3 am?
Bars blasting with partying – Friday nights straight through to Early hours of Mondays – have forced the town of Võru to seek ways of curbing night-time sale of alcohol.
21.08.2014, Tuuli KochPM
Editorial: locking up the inner beast
If all goes according to plan, in ten years lion’s share of Estonia’s passenger carrying buses should be equipped with alcolocks. Drunk driving will be no more – with driver brains no longer working, a device will decide whether the guy goes to work or not that day.
Tipsy bus drivers to be «alcolocked»
Police thinks alcohol activated vehicle immobilisers work well to keep drunk drivers off any vehicle.
19.08.2014, Merike TederPM
Blanket ban a cold shower for Estonian producers
Yesterday morning, as requested by president Vladimir Putin, Russian prime minister Dmitri Medvedev imposed import ban on Western beef, pork, fruits and vegetables, poultry, fish, milk and milk products.
08.08.2014, Kadri HansaluPM
Editorial: drowning Demon Alcohol in European money
A lot has been said about alcohol this summer, the chief trigger being the new Law and Order Act since July 1st allowing booze to be used in public – as long as others aren’t bothered. Alas, as characteristic to warm weather, drunken deaths on highways and in water have added fuel to the fire.
24.07.2014, Karin KangroPM
EU funds to help Estonia sober up
On the wings of EU millions, major change is coming to alcoholism treatment in Estonia. Instead of pulling folks out of delirium as before, the future focus will be integrated treatment.
24.07.2014, Hanneli RudiPM
Pärnu mayor takes stand against public drinking
Mayor of Pärnu Toomas Kivimägi does not think they have crossed the law while banning public drinking in city centre. As mediated by Public Broadcasting, ministry of justice does not deem the limits imposed in Pärnu to be sufficiently justified.
15.07.2014, Madis JärvekülgPM
Beaches bemoan tippler takeover
With mere two weeks gone by after entry into force of the public-drinking-allowed amendment, beach security says: at water’s edge, consumption of alcohol and the related problems are decidedly on the rise.
15.07.2014, Uwe GnadenteichPM
Benches dear to drunks taken away
In the fall of 2012, Tallinn City Centre government ordered a dozen benches for Uus Maailm and Lastekodu Street. By now, some have been removed as having become popular among the drunkards of the area whose behaviour proved bothersome to other people.
14.07.2014, Uwe GnadenteichPM
Cities limit tippling
July saw entry into force of Law and Order Act provision allowing alcohol to be consumed at many a public spot – as long as others aren’t bothered. At that, local government hands were left untied to set aside areas for minors or promotion of health where booze isn’t okay.
10.07.2014, Tiina KaukverePM
Finns forced to give good reasons for bringing beer from Tallinn
Starting today, tourists need to prove in Finland that the alcohol hauled along is for private and personal use. Due to that, these past weeks Finns have been purchasing increasingly vast amounts of cheap Estonian alcohol.
01.07.2014, Anette ParkseppPM
Disorder ordered in public order?
July 1st. New law allows for polite binging and protects people by silent hours starting 60 minutes sooner.
16.06.2014, Tuuli KochPM
Editorial: talk to kid, and do tackle alcohol
Who in their right mind would wish their kids to turn out binge drinkers, livers leaning towards the grave at 40 and lungs loaded with toxins?
Parents too permissive towards drinking
In Estonia, moms and dads are too lenient with kids consuming alcohol: majority of them thinks the initial schnapps should happen ere the child becomes an adult, and that offering alcohol at home helps cut curiosity developed towards it.
13.06.2014, Marina LohkPM
Editorial: popularity pops a problem
Risk behaviour study ordered by Police and Border Guard Board highlights a few issues regarding touch-points between school kids and drugs, and what affects their attitudes.
Third of 12th graders on drugs
According to study ordered by Police and Border Guard Board (PBGB), every last-grader in Estonian gymnasiums has taken drugs – cannabis, mostly.
04.06.2014, Marian MänniPM
Cheap cigarette prices set for sudden jump
In a rare accord, Big Tobacco, taxpayers union and health activists agree that tobacco excise needs to primarily rise on the cheap cigarettes storming the market. That ought to make cigarettes harder to obtain for the youth. Today, the government will be deliberating the issue, as new coalition brings a new excise bill.
29.05.2014, Tuuli KochPM
Vodka makers mad at sharp excise rise
Makers and sellers of strong alcohol stagger in shock at plan by new coalition to raise excise of alcohol in four years to come by 15 percent, 10 percent, 10 percent and 10 percent.
15.05.2014, Tuuli KochPM
Non-drinkers expected to explain why
In Estonia, booze is so prevalent that it’s quite a surprise to others if some decline a drink, says the experience of those who opted – out of their own free will – to cut consumption of alcohol.
14.05.2014, Marina LohkPM
Finns urged to buy booze on native soil
Alko, the Finnish alcohol sales monopoly, has launched a campaign against hauling drinks home from Estonia.
05.05.2014, Andres ReimerPM
Ministry initiates bill of steep excise rise
Yesterday, Ministry of Finance came out with draft legislation on amending Alcohol, Tobacco, Fuel and Electricity Excise Duty Act and Fiscal Marking of Liquid Fuel Act whereby several excises will undergo a rise much more pronounced than currently planned, in years to come.
Editorial: funny vs fear
In Postimees today, health propagator Hannes Lents says drinking is not down in Estonia – no matter the campaigns. According to a fresh TNS Emor poll, there was a 1.8 percent decline, year-on-year, but that’s too little to prove effectiveness of ads on Estonian behaviour. True, less strong liquor and beer was downed, but the milder drinks and wine went up.
Threats don’t work
In fight against alcohol and tobacco, fear appeals are ineffective or rather provoke a backlash, say behaviourists.
23.04.2014, Liis VelskerPM
Editorial: cruise peddlers must keep clients safe
A couple of lines dropped by Tallink personnel director to a TV channel have triggered a scandal in Swedish society, as well as yet another debate on attitudes related to rape. This is what the director said: «Every woman have to think about that first, how much they drink. They know where it could go. And also we can say that not every drunk person is raped.» The ship company has condemned the attitude that can be attributed to these sentences, and the director has apologised.
10.04.2014, Andres EinmannPM
Words uttered by Tallink director trigger scandal
While commenting on rapes aboard ships in Swedish TV, Tallink Group director of human development and resources Vahur Ausmees said women should be aware, when consuming alcohol, that they may fall victims to rape.
Alcohol dependence is undertreated in Estonia - specialist
Alcohol use disorder is the most undertreated medical problem in Estonia, says Jaanus Harro, University of Tartu professor and councillor at the executive committee of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology who steers an international conference on alcohol dependence in Tallinn on Friday.
Spirit producer demands equal treatment
State expects alcohol ads to quit promoting lifestyle, but beer and cider producers flaunt liquor as part of life «worth living».
16.07.2013, Tuuli KochPM
Beer brewer wants vodka buyers age limit raised
According to Saku Brewery executive director Margus Kastein, alcohol consumption in Estonia could be lowered by raising age limit on strong alcoholic beverages purchases to 21 years, as in Nordic Countries.
06.06.2013, Hanneli RudiPM
Consumption of alcohol in Estonia did not change last year - study
The consumption of alcohol by residents of Estonia did not change in 2012 compared to the previous year, averaging 10.6 liters of pure alcohol per capita, it appears from the fresh alcohol market survey by the Estonian Institute of Economic Research (EKI).